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Winning rural india essay
The assassination of Mohandas Gandhi on was carried out by Nathuram Vinayak Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who held him responsible for partition and charged that Mohandas Gandhi was appeasing Muslims. 51 52 The concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games rocked the country in 2010, raising questions about the credibility of the government followed by the 2G spectrum case and Adarsh Housing Society scam. The 2012 Delhi gang rape case and subsequent protest by civil society resulted in changes in the laws related to rape and offences against women. 13 Nehru advocated a socialist model for the economy of India Five-Year Plans were shaped by the Soviet model based on centralised and integrated national economic programs 14 no taxation for Indian farmers, minimum wage and benefits for blue-collar workers. She defeated right-wing leader Morarji Desai. First, the 35th winning rural india essay Amendment laid down a set of conditions that made Sikkim an "Associate State a special designation not used by any other state. She successfully ended the Privy Purse guarantee for former Indian royalty, and waged a major offensive against party hierarchy over the nationalisation of India's banks.
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Self-reliance encourages the necessity for people to use local initiatives, their abilities and their own possessions to improve their condition. Hibbard and Tang (2004) in their study in Vietnam have noted the importance of NGOs roles in sustainable community development. India was neutral in the Cold War, and a leader in the Non-Aligned Movement. India has constantly maintained the position of blaming Pakistan for supplying these groups with logistical support, arms, recruits and training. However, the Congress-led government faced many allegations of corruption. Retrieved on b Giridharadas, Anand. However, underneath these shared concerns lie three fundamentally different approaches to microfinance: financial sustainability, feminist empowerment, and poverty alleviation. During these conflicting periods, lives, properties, and physical infrastructures, diseases, and other hazardous issues are left as strong legacy in our society. It was only the second time since Independence that the Congress Party was ousted from power. Effective community development sits on the foundation of self-reliance. 39 His government fell after Singh, along with Bihar's Chief Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav 's government, had Advani arrested in Samastipur and stopped his Ram Rath Yatra, which was going to the Babri Masjid site in Ayodhya on Bharatiya. The UF government had attempted a progressive budget that encouraged reforms, but the 1997 Asian financial crisis and political instability created economic stagnation. The tsunami was caused by a powerful undersea earthquake off the Indonesian coast.
Weighing the number of parties by the number of seats they actually won in Parliament - a common metric known as the "effective number of parties" - is a more accurate gauge of competition. In November 1997, the Congress Party again withdrew support for the United Front. 55 56 In the Indian general election in 2009, the United Progressive Alliance won a convincing and resounding 262 seats, with Congress alone winning 206 seats. Before beginning to build capacity within programs, practitioners need to identify pre-existing capacities such as skills, structures, partnerships and resources. But following the counsel of her political advisor. But the meeting failed without a breakthrough or even a joint statement because of differences over Kashmir region. When Congress politicians attempted to oust Gandhi by suspending her Congress membership, Gandhi was empowered with a large exodus of Members of Parliament to her own Congress (R). 1950s and 1960s edit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India. "Anger mounts over Saradha fund crisis as thousands of depositors face ruin". Therefore, the final outcome of community development is the independence of the community from external agents in formulating its agenda and managing its affairs.
India The Political Economy of Growth, Stagnation and the State, (2009 Political Economy, Growth and Liberalisation in India, (2009) excerpt and text search Mansingh, Surjit. It is perhaps too simplistic to declare that national elections in India are the sum total of thirtyfive state-level contests; after all, national-level political leaders, issues, and dynamics - or even nationwide "waves" - can and do influence vote choice. 47 India's nuclear tests prompted President of the United States Bill Clinton and Japan to impose economic sanctions on India pursuant to the 1994 Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act and led to widespread international condemnation. Potti Sreeramulu 's fast-unto-death, and consequent death for the demand of an Andhra State in 1953 sparked a major re-shaping of the Indian Union. Under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the BJP coalition lasted in power 13 days. According to the nuclear deal, the United States was to give India access to civilian nuclear technology while India agreed to greater scrutiny for its nuclear programme. Otero (1999,.10) illustrates the various ways in which microfinance, at its core combats poverty. Excerpt and text search Guha, Ramachandra. The Janata party had become intensely unpopular due to its internecine warfare, and a perceived lack of leadership on solving India's serious economic and social problems.
History of the Republic of India, wikipedia
Ambedkar, on 26 November 1949. 36 Janata Dal edit General elections in 1989 gave Rajiv's Congress a plurality, a far cry from the majority which propelled him to power. The war was a complete rout for the Indians and led to a refocusing on arms build-up and an improvement in relations with the United States. When people become fully empowered, they are able to contribute toward sustainable development (Lyons. In this contemporary time, NGOs are tremendously working, and helping government, institutions, and the rural poor in the fight against poverty in Sub-Saharan African, which was their traditional role during the World Wars. Even using this refined measure, the increase remains substantial. Surging political competition, the most striking trend in Indian electoral politics is the explosion in political competition in recent years. This new government also collapsed in a matter of months, when Congress withdrew its support.
If all goes according to plan, by June India will have selected 543 members of the sixteenth Lok Sabha. I agree with the author, because if a project like microfinance is enforced, the living standard of people will be improved. But appearances can be deceiving. Veteran newscaster Surojit Sen of All India Radio is seen holding a microphone on the right. It seeks to create institutions that deliver financial services to the poor, who are continuously ignored by the formal banking sector. India is said to have stationed 20,00040,000 troops in a country of only 200,000 during the referendum. Frankish (2003) has counted a number of dimensions for community capacity including financial capacity (resources, opportunities and knowledge human resources (skills, motivations, confidence, and relational abilities and trust) and social resources (networks, participation structures, shared trust and bonding).
Farmers' suicides in India, wikipedia
Singh continued economic liberalisation, although the need for support from Indian Socialists and Communists forestalled further privatisation for some time. Singh had been moved from the Finance ministry to the Defence ministry after he unearthed some scandals which made the Congress leadership uncomfortable. Thousands were killed immediately, while many more subsequently died or were left disabled. In 1974, India tested its first nuclear weapon in winning rural india essay the desert of Rajasthan, near Pokhran. But in 1980, that changed drastically: a 1 percentage point increase in vote share was suddenly worth nearly.7 seats. "Nehru: The Great Awakening". The crucial role played by NGOs in the restoration of peace in war affected zones, is one seen as important. Even very small changes in the vote share can have dramatic impacts on the number of seats won. Majumdar, Sanjoy (10 November 2009).
States reorganisation edit Main article: States Reorganisation Act South Indian states prior to the States Reorganisation Act. 17 India has fought a total of four wars/military conflicts with its rival nation Pakistan, two in this period. I am in total agreement with them. The Government of Punjab (2004). But the rise of an insurgency in Punjab would jeopardise India's security. These essays and proposals were thoughtful and creative, and they drew superlative comments from the Committee. . Makers of Modern India (2011) excerpt and text search Jain,. From the evidence of the current conflict in Afghanistan, Richard Barajas, Rachel Howard, Andrew Miner Jeff Sartin, Karina Silver (2000 have maintained that NGOs can play peace building roles. Sustainable communities meet the economic needs of their residents, enhance and protect the environment, and promote more human local societies (Bridger and Luloff 1997). Although many Indians termed this appeasement, Nehru signed a pact with Liaquat Ali Khan that pledged both nations to the protection of minorities and creation of minority commissions. From the literatures, it could be summarized that NGOs play an important function in fighting poverty via promoting sustainable community development. Although resisted by Desai and India's business community, the policy was popular with the masses.
Mary kom, the Times of India
Halting growth IN voter turnout, voter turnout in national elections has grown at a relatively modest clip over the years. Understanding India's Economic Reforms. This evidence will be seen in the next chapter. In this situation, NGO assists local staff with drafting sustainable development plans that are functional under the umbrella of a central government policy. THE difficulty OF predicting. Pakistan precipitated the war a few weeks after independence by launching tribal lashkar (militia) from Waziristan, 6 winning rural india essay in an effort to secure Kashmir, the future of which hung in the balance. In order to gain economic sustainability, NGOs through microfinance help the communities to reduce poverty, create jobs, and promote income generation. Senior members of the Congress Party have been implicated in stirring the violence against Sikhs. Finally, they concluded that poverty alleviation is process-oriented, and it requires extensive community participation and relies on network to share resources, knowledge and expertise. 19 Post-Nehru India edit Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi served as prime minister for three consecutive terms (196677) and a fourth term (198084). In addition, Wright says that many development practitioners not only find microfinance inadequate, but that it actually diverts funding from more pressing or important interventions such as health and education (2000,.6).
Rajiv Gandhi administration edit The Congress party chose Rajiv Gandhi, Indira's older son, as the next Prime Minister. Election Commission of India. 53 In February, the infamous Samjhauta Express bombings took place, killing Pakistani civilians in Panipat, Haryana. In March, India overtook China to become the world's largest importer of arms. In 1972, Arunachal Pradesh (the North East Frontier Agency ) and Mizoram (from the Mizo Hills in the south) were separated from Assam as union territories; both became states in 1986. Indian National Congress leader, jawaharlal Nehru became the first, prime Minister of India, but the leader most associated with the independence struggle, Mahatma Gandhi, accepted no office. In November 2008, Mumbai attacks took place. Gross Domestic Product growth increased to beyond. And then they would become empowered economically. Edwards Hulme (1995:6) stated that it is difficult to find general evidence that NGOs are close to the poor. This led to the rise of the armed extremist insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir composed, in part, of those who unfairly lost elections. 33 Rajiv Gandhi initiated a series of reforms: the Licence Raj was loosened, and government restrictions on foreign currency, travel, foreign investment and imports decreased considerably.
An Understanding of the Indian Legal System - Law Teacher
The history of the, republic of India begins on The country became an independent nation within the, british Commonwealth on Concurrently the Muslim-majority northwest and east. The concept of self-reliance is strategically situated within the essence of community development and is related to other concepts like mutual-help, self-help, participation of the indigenous people and rural progress. Furthermore, it is also rare for NGO projects to be financially self sufficient. In January, massive earthquakes hit Gujarat state, killing at least winning rural india essay 30,000. For every 1 share of the vote Congress garnered in 1977, it was rewarded with.9 seats. 'federalization' OF electoral politics, as India's federal system has become more decentralized, states have become the primary venues of political contestation.
Sino-Indian War, and with, pakistan, which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965,. Many small princely states were merged to form viable administrative states such as Saurashra, pepsu, Vindhya Pradesh and Madhya Bharat. From the 1950s to the 1980s, India followed socialist -inspired policies. "Firstpost India: IBN7 journalist killed in UP communal riots, Army clamps curfew". President Prasad was also elected to a second term by the electoral college of the first Parliament of India. The government sponsored modern agricultural implements, new varieties of generic seeds, and increased financial assistance to farmers that increased the yield of food crops such as wheat, rice and corn, as well as commercial crops like cotton, tea, tobacco and coffee. The aim of microfinance according to Otero (1999) is not just about providing capital to the poor to combat poverty on an individual level, it also has a role at an institutional level. It was the first of four Indo-Pakistan Wars winning rural india essay fought between the two newly independent nations.
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Hulme and Mosley (1996 while acknowledging the role microfinance can have in helping to reduce poverty, concluded from their research on microfinance that most contemporary schemes are less effective than they might be (1996,.134). In 2009, Congress won.5 of the vote; this was almost identical to its showing in both 19The BJP's vote share peaked in 1998, when it took home.6 of the vote. But, the elections were allegedly rigged in favour of him. To place this number in comparative context, Canada's 2011 parliamentary election produced.4 effective parties while Brazil's 2006 election produced over. The surge in political competition began in the 1980s -the number of parties contesting elections jumped from 38 in 1984 to 117 in 1989, a watershed year in Indian politics.
Human Development Report 2004, Punjab (PDF) (Report). Their roles in this sector, has immensely contributed to alleviating poverty among the poor. The 2014 political contest is being projected as a head-to-head battle between two national parties, but the election may hinge on local factors. The average margin of victory in Britain's 2010 parliamentary election was more than. A leadership election resulted in the elevation of Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter who had been serving as Minister for Information and Broadcasting, as the third Prime Minister. But his youth and inexperience were an asset in the eyes of citizens tired of the inefficacy and corruption of career politicians, and looking for newer policies and a fresh start to resolve the country's long-standing problems. Retrieved 8 September 2013. The economic reforms were a reaction to an impending balance of payment crisis. While serious challenges remain, India is enjoying a period of economic expansion that has propelled it to the forefront of the world economy, and has correspondingly increased its influence in political and diplomatic terms. New elections in February 1998 brought the BJP the largest number of seats in Parliament (182 but this fell far short of a majority. Hundreds of millions of Indians will take part in the largest organized democratic exercise ever recorded in the spring of 2014, barring the collapse of the ruling UPA government led by the Congress or a move by Prime Minister. Since the philosophy of community development is independent from any outside agents, thus the community must rely on their own resources. "Defence minister resigns in Indian bribery scandal".
"Jawaharlal Nehru and the Hindu Code: A Victory of Symbol over Substance?". Haksar, Gandhi resuscitated her popular appeal by a major shift towards socialist policies. The partition led to a population transfer of more than 10 million people between India and Pakistan and the death of about one million people. The Golden Quadrilateral project aimed to link India's corners with a network of modern highways. One example is UP; many of the state's constituencies feature a four-way race between the Congress, BJP, and two viable regional parties. On an all-India level, a party's aggregate vote share might not change much from one election to the next, but the distribution of where it got its votes could vary based on local factors such as the extent. India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy.
Five trends shaping India's electoral landscape - Times
India is now being looked at as a potential superpower. 15 Foreign policy and military conflicts edit See also: Role of India in Non-Aligned Movement, List of conflicts in Asia Republic of India, and Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 Military conflicts The Indian Air Force used 20 small and lightweight Canberra. Cambridge University 1 maint: Extra text: authors list ( link ) Dixit, Jyotindra Nath (2004). 67 68 In August 2010, cloudbursts and the ensuing flooding in the Ladakh region of North India resulted in the deaths of around 255 people, while affecting 9,000 people directly. Credit for the political integration of India is largely attributed to Vallabhbhai Patel (deputy Prime Minister of India at the time 1 who post-independence and before the death of Mahatma Gandhi teamed up with Jawaharlal Nehru and the Mahatma. Manmohan Singh became the Prime Minister, after the Congress President Sonia Gandhi, the widow of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, declined to take the office, in order to defuse the controversy about whether her foreign birth should be considered a disqualification. India a democratic country. Long associated with the NehruGandhi family, Pratibha Patil was a low-profile governor of the state of Rajasthan before emerging as the favoured presidential candidate of Sonia Gandhi.
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It is our birthright to demand equitable adjustment of Hindu law. Declining margin OF victory, as the number of parties seeking - and winning - representation in Parliament has steadily increased, so has the closeness of elections. In this Chapter, however, researchers task is to review the literature of other scholarly works as it relate to NGOs roles in poverty alleviation. However, looking at average turnout rates, as with almost any statistic regarding national politics, masks a great deal of variation at the state level. Constitution edit Main article: Constitution of India The Constituent Assembly winning rural india essay adopted the Constitution of India, drafted by a committee headed. Som, Reba (February 1994). The plight of the refugees outraged Hindus and Indian nationalists, and the refugee population drained the resources of Indian states, who were unable to absorb them. Northeast India was paralysed owing to the ulfa 's clash with Government forces. This further incentivized the growth of regional parties, whose leaders recognized that they could wield considerable influence in the formation of governments with a relatively small number of seats in Parliament. 2 Partition of India edit Main article: Partition of India I find no parallel in history for a body of converts and their descendants claiming to be a nation apart from the parent stock. Retrieved 6 November 2013. "India and Pakistan Strain as Flooding Kills Hundreds".
Throughout 2003, India's speedy economic progress, political stability and a rejuvenated peace initiative with Pakistan increased the government's popularity. The Rao administration initiated the privatisation of large, inefficient, and loss-inducing government corporations. Women in Modern India. In 1962, overall turnout stood.5, while in the 2009 election the number was.4. The separation of Kerala and the Telugu -speaking regions of Madras State enabled the creation of an exclusively Tamil -speaking state of Tamil Nadu. Gandhi continued to govern with a slim majority. The total numbers assisted are also small. Despite the importance attached to microfinance as an effective tool for poverty alleviation, yet it cannot be over ruled that this sector do have many problems. This sparked off the 2002 Gujarat violence, leading to the deaths of 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus and with 223 people reported missing.
Poverty, elimination by NGOs - UK Essays
In December 2013, the Supreme Court of India overturned the Delhi High Court ruling on Sec 377, criminalising homosexual sex between consenting adults once again in the country. China withdrew from disputed territory in what is to China South Tibet, and to India part of the North-East Frontier Agency that it crossed during the war. 3 An estimated.5 million 4 Hindus and Sikhs living in West Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Baluchistan, East Bengal and Sind migrated to India in fear of domination and suppression in Muslim Pakistan. NGOs through the micro-finance help members of community to access jobs, income-generation and improve economic situation there by alleviating poverty from the poor. And there are a handful of states with badly fragmented, multiparty systems. In May and June 1999, India discovered an elaborate campaign of terrorist infiltration that resulted in the Kargil War in Kashmir, derailing a promising peace process that had begun only three months earlier when Prime Minister Vajpayee visited Pakistan, inaugurating the Delhi-Lahore bus service. 2014 Return of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Government edit The Hindutva movement advocating Hindu nationalism originated in the 1920s and has remained a strong political force in India. During emergency period, governments are unable to settle their displaced and refugee population, because of inadequacies of resources.
This Congress-led government, which served a full five-year term, initiated a gradual process of economic liberalisation and reform, which has opened the Indian economy to global trade and investment. Both governments constructed large relief camps for incoming and leaving refugees, and the Indian Army was mobilised to provide humanitarian assistance on a massive scale. Sustainable development, on the other hand, has emerged over the past few decades as an important paradigm for poverty alleviation. Becoming Prime Minister, Singh made an important visit to the Golden Temple shrine, to heal the wounds of the past. Martin and Raymond Lifchez, Founder and Chair of the berkeley prize, "who has dedicated his life to the social art of architecture.". It should be noted that women are always at mercy regarding social misshapes.According to Cheston and Khan (2002 one of the most popular forms of economic empowerment for women is microfinance, which provides credit for poor women who are usually excluded from formal credit institutions. "India's FY11 growth could be revised up-govt official". "Indo-China War of 1962". No statewide plebiscite was held, however, for in 1954, after Pakistan began to receive arms from the United States, Nehru withdrew his support. Therefore, to attain self-reliance, NGOs and community groups must discover their own potential and look for ways to innovatively develop such discovered potential to use as sources of wealth for the development of the community (Ife and Tesoriero 2006). Since then, its vote share has declined slightly to 19, down a little over one percentage point from its 1996 tally. It is currently being promoted as a key development strategy for promoting poverty eradication and economic empowerment.