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How to teach essay writing pdf
Listing, which is when you make a list of any and all ideas related to a topic and ten read through it to find helpful information for your paper. Tip : Emphasize the importance of giving yourself at least a few hours away from the essay before you revise. Plan to spend a full class session on writing thesis statements and review the information multiple times as well. Each of the body paragraphs in an expository or argumentative essay should include a claim that is supported by research. Starting an essay can be one of the most difficult parts of writing an essay. Writing is more engaging if you choose a topic that interests you, so encourage your students to do this. Also, make sure to spend time in class going over how to write a thesis statement. Show students different approaches to organizing an essay depending on their topic and the essay s genre. You may also want to create a separate discussion board where students can post ideas about their essay and get feedback from you and their classmates. Provide models of the type of essay you want your students to write. Community Q A Search Add New Question Question How can I choose the best essay topic? Did this article help you?
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3 Divide students into small groups to discuss model essays. Some brainstorming activities you could encourage your students to try include: 15 Freewriting, which is when you write freely about anything that comes to mind for a set amount of time, such as 10, 15, or 20 minutes. Ask them to identify the most shocking fact or statistic related to their essay topic. Then, identify where the author provides support for a claim and how they expand on the source. Make sure to identify the thesis in each of the essays you read with your students so that they will have plenty of models to refer.
Go with a topic that interests you and that conforms to the assignment. 12 For example, you could spend a class session going over topic sentences, and then look at how the authors of model essays have used topic sentences to introduce their claims. 6 Give students homework to help them develop their essays. 14 Try giving students a sample timeline for how to work on their essays. Try starting or ending each class with a writing exercise to get students engaged with a new concept or idea. Defining terms, such as identifying all of the key terms related to their topic and writing out definitions for each one. Revision is an essential part of the writing process, but your students may not see it that way. 13 For example, you might direct students to a conclusion in a narrative essay that reflects on the significance of an authors experience. Okay #10006, method 1 Choosing Genres and Topics 1, choose an essay genre to assign to your students. 4 Use in-class writing exercises to help students develop ideas. Explain to your students that writing a good essay requires deep thought, careful planning, and multiple revisions.
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For a descriptive essay, students might use spatial reasoning to how to teach essay writing pdf describe something from top to bottom, or organize the descriptive paragraphs into categories for each of the 5 senses, such as sight, sound, smell, taste, and feel. Method 3 Guiding Students Through the Writing Process 1 Explain the writing process so students will know to start early. 3 Instruct students on different ways to organize their thoughts. Questioning, such as by answering the who, what, when, where, why, and how of their topic. 19 You could also assign specific parts of the writing process as homework, such as requiring students to hand in a first draft as a homework assignment. Students can work in pairs or groups during the workshop. Help students understand the goal of the conclusion by referring to conclusions in the model essays you read with them. 4, argumentative or persuasive essays require students to take a stance on a topic and make an argument to support that stance. 7 For example, for each of the essays you assign your students, you could ask them to identify the authors main point or focus, the structure of the essay, the authors use of sources, and the effect of the introduction and conclusion. 4 Give students examples of how to conclude an essay. You can collect individual essays and assign 1 at a time, or use a reader and have students read essays in the genre you have selected.
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3 Show students how to introduce and support their claims. If students are writing expository or argumentative essays, then they might need to start by answering the most important questions about their topic and providing background information. They can access the board any time of the day or night and read what other students have written. If possible, it is even better to wait a few days. For an expository or argumentative essay, you might show students conclusions that restate the most important aspect of a topic or that offer solutions for the future. Students sometimes get in a rush to be done with an essay once they have covered all of their main points, so it is common for conclusions to seem abrupt or awkward. After this time passes, it is often easier to spot errors and work out better ways of describing things. Ask students to write a paragraph where they reflect on the experience they are writing about and turn it in as homework or share it on class discussion board. 5 Create a discussion board and require students to post regularly.
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10 For example, if you read an essay that begins with an interesting anecdote, highlight that in your class discussion of the essay. Explain different types of revision techniques to your students and then provide them with class time to revise their work. Your students may be tempted to begin with a broad, sweeping introduction, or they start out with something that sounds generic or bland, such as a cliché saying or". 11 For example, you could provide a few model thesis statements that students can use as templates and then ask them to write a thesis for their topic as an in-class activity or have them post it on an online discussion board. Remind your students of all the ways that improving their essay writing skills can benefit them. Show your students how to structure their body paragraphs with this information. Teaching students how to write an essay is a big undertaking, but this is a crucial process for any high school or college student to learn. Start by assigning essays to read and then encourage students. 162 In sum, although even DOE agreed that the tubes could be used for centrifuges, DOE's assessment that such use was unlikely proved closer to the mark. 675 The Community how to teach essay writing pdf also assessed that Saddam was motivated to reengage with the United Nations in order to avoid.S.
Recommendation 4 Primary institutional responsibility within the Intelligence Community for establishing clear and consistent "U.S. Still, through the mid-1990s, analysts continued to assess that Iraq had not yet reconstituted its nuclear program. 20 Interview with FBI counterintelligence official (Feb. 12, 2003) available at doj. Our envisioned not-for-profit sponsored research institute is another natural location for independent analysis to be conducted. Interview with Defense humint official (Nov. The classified report discusses further reasons why signals intelligence collection against Iraq was so challenging. And after all, the United States was not alone in error; other major intelligence services also thought that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. While successful collection cannot ensure a good analytical product, the failure to collect information-as our Iraq study demonstrated-turns analysis into guesswork. Information sharing between intelligence services is dependent upon many factors, including diplomatic and policy factors that are beyond the Intelligence Community's ability to control. 242 Interviews with CIA Iraq WMD Review Group analysts (Aug. The Intelligence Community did not make or change any analytic judgments in response to political pressure to reach a particular conclusion, but the pervasive conventional wisdom that Saddam retained WMD affected the analytic process. Like many large organizations, the Intelligence Community has had difficulty "mainstreaming" new technologies (which are often developed by outside organizations like In-Q-Tel, a private, non-profit entity that identifies and invests in new technologies for the CIA).
The Intelligence Community played a key role, for example, in getting Libya to renounce weapons of mass destruction and in exposing the long-running.Q. The ability to synthesize relevant all-source terrorism analysis in a timely manner; and. Moreover, because of the easy accessibility of toxic chemicals and chemical precursors, it is essential that the Community develop strong links with the FBI, which may be better suited to monitor and respond to suspicious purchases. 509 NGA, Reassessment of Activity at Al Musayyib Barracks Brigade Headquarters and Ammunition Depot, (June 15, 2004) (hereinafter "NGA Reassessment Comments from NGA (March 3, 2005). 14 Yet the Iraq Survey Group's post-war investigation "found no direct evidence that Iraq had plans for a new biological weapons program or was conducting biological weapons-specific work for military purposes" after 1996. Another asylum seeker (hereinafter "the second source reporting through Defense humint channels provided one report in June 2001 that Iraq had transportable facilities for the production. 1 To ensure compliance, Libya agreed to formally "declare" the existence of all relevant weapons, materials, and facilities, and to permit a series of inspections in Libya, commencing in January 2004. Conclusion 12 Analysts skewed the analytical process by requiring proof that Iraq did not have WMD. During the Cold War, the Intelligence Community built up an impressive body of expertise on Soviet society, organization, and ideology, as well as on the Soviet threat. The Community's best assessments were set out in an October 2002 National Intelligence Estimate, or NIE, a summation of the Community's views. 520 Collection Concepts Development Center Study, Iraqi Weapons of Mass Destruction: Recommendations for Improvements in Collection (Study One) (June 29, 2000). 512 NGA assessed that grading could be associated with innocuous, routine activities.
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11 Interview with Terrorist Threat Integration Center official (Oct. 58 NIE. 180 In other places, the NIE's assertions concerning Iraq's nuclear program were simply factually incorrect. 157 Similarly, DIA assessed that "alternative uses" for the tubes were "possible but that such alternatives were "less likely because the specifications of the tubes are consistent with late 1980s Iraqi gas centrifuge rotor designs." 158 DOE disputed this analysis on several grounds. 7 These are important new authorities; our terrorism case study sets out the difficulties the Terrorist Threat Integration Center encountered in obtaining adequate personnel support from other agencies.
Moreover, data from all sources of information should be processed and correlated Community-wide before being conveyed to analysts. The goal would be to enable the DNI to coordinate and oversee the process, without requiring him to take on the heavy-and almost overwhelming-mantle of daily intelligence support to the President. 124 NIE. On the other hand, sometimes children will just sit and watch rubbish for hours at a time and obviously this is not a good thing and needs to be controlled. Interview with Customs and Border Protection officials (Jan. Paragraph 2: describe the situation from another point of view Conclusion: write what most people think, what you think. He is also Director emeritus of the Asia/Pacific Research Center at Stanford University and Professor of Public Policy and Management emeritus at the university's Graduate School of Business. We also note that the Mission Managers we propose-who would have unique insight into the information that exists in their respective subject areas-could play a key role as advocates for information sharing and as advisors to the cimo concerning. Some publications we have reviewed use numerical estimates of certainty, while others rely on phrases such as "probably" or "almost certainly." We strongly urge that such assessments of certainty be used routinely and consistently throughout the Community.
Expository, essay - Examples and, definition of, expository, essay
These include fourteen departmental components-eight in the Department of Defense, two in the Department of Homeland Security, one each in four other departments (State, Energy, Treasury, and Justice) and one independent agency, the Central Intelligence Agency. Further, they must take contrarian positions, not just ones that take a harder line (a flaw with the Team B exercise of the 1970s). 600 Although the distributor had been assured by the procurement agent that the end-user was "legitimate the distributor remained concerned about the procurement agent 's interest in these items and contacted its own country's authorities in March 2002. We thus offer recommendations on ways in which intelligence products can be enhanced, including how the President's Daily Brief (PDB) might be improved. Make sure you explain the relationship between your evidence and your idea so that it is clear to readers. Summary Recommendations Combating chemical, biological, and nuclear terrorism, as well as other foreign intelligence challenges, will require intelligence assets both inside and outside the United States. Click Here to See the List. Armed with a clear understanding of where expertise resides in the Community, Mission Managers will also be able to foster competitive analysis. And traditional technical collection techniques have been degraded by the pace of change in telecommunications technology and by our adversaries' increasing awareness of our capabilities.
What Part of "Warning" Should Be Competitive? 26, 2002 CIA, Title Classified (OTI IA (SPS) (Oct. All the responsibilities of the CIA, DIA, NSA, NRO, and NGA are related to intelligence, and therefore each of these organizations in its entirety is considered a member of the Intelligence Community. On the others side of the coin, a school such as Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center which used to require 40 hours of health care experience means you could have worked one day and then quit. The ISG concluded-contrary to the Intelligence Community's pre-war assessments-that Iraq had actually unilaterally destroyed its undeclared CW stockpile in 1991 and that there were no credible indications that Baghdad resumed production of CW thereafter. The reason for this suggested change is simple-many aspects of proliferation involve non-financial institutions, such as pharmaceutical, petrochemical, and high-tech companies. Managers of technical analysts explained to us that they had a great deal of difficulty retaining analysts because they came in expecting to work on areas in which they had developed expertise, but were pulled by the. The DNI needs management structures and processes that ensure a strategic, Community-level focus on priority intelligence missions.
764 DCI Statement for the Record at Introduction. Nevertheless, people watch television, and it is not too bad if they carefully choose what to watch and what not to watch. 8, how to write an Essay Use the following pages in your grammar book to find out the essentials to an essay. The intelligence reform act recognizes this possibility by calling for the use of audit, authentication, and access controls in the Information Sharing Environment. The Office of Management and Budget, as part of the Executive Office of the President, reviews intelligence budgets with respect to all presidential policies and priorities. 15, 2004) (discussing Collection Concepts Development Center (ccdc) study on the active interdiction of weapons of mass destruction, which underscored that one of the main underlying problems was that no one owned how to teach essay writing pdf the problem of WMD terrorism Interview with CTC (WMD) official (Oct. Serving intelligence customers Analysts are the link between customers and the Intelligence Community.
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As described in Chapter Six (Leadership and Management our proposed National Counter Proliferation Center (ncpc) will serve a how to teach essay writing pdf variety of functions. What is your opinion? 3, 2003 see also Electronic mail from Group Chief, CIA/DO curve ball (Feb. Not only were analysts' efforts redundant, but policymakers were then required to read through all five papers to look for subtle differences in perspective that could have been better conveyed in a single, coordinated paper. But a central flaw of the NIE is that it took these defensible assumptions and swathed them in the mystique of intelligence, providing secret information that seemed to support them but was in fact nearly worthless, if not misleading. What Part of "Warning" Should Be Competitive? In addition, a consolidated, prioritized list of all the target board requirements-reflecting the priorities of the President, other key decisionmakers, and the military-would be developed on a periodic basis to provide strategic guidance to collectors as to the nation's most. In our judgment, based upon our discussions with senior analytic experts, this error was caused by multiple factors, including a lack of experience or training among technical analysts in how to incorporate the systems integration capabilities of a would-be nuclear power into their assessments.
But there are in fact a host of entities that collect human intelligence either through clandestine or overt means, ranging from long-established agencies like the Defense humint service and how to teach essay writing pdf the FBI to agencies that until recently had not viewed themselves as intelligence. While here and elsewhere in this report we speak of the value of competitive analysis, here was an example that makes the point that competing analysis is of no use, even counterproductive, if there is no attempt at constructive dialogue and collaboration. The ncpc would play a vital intelligence support role both in helping to formulate.S. 145 Interview with CIA winpac nuclear analysts (Oct. Although this strategic analytic unit could be housed in a number of places, we believe that the NIC is best. At the same time, the Intelligence Community should recognize the ways in which it can improve its collection and analysis efforts, and how the shift of resources and emphasis away from Libya may-in the future-create difficulties. 70 In turn, the Assistant Director rates only three people outside of the Directorate of Intelligence. We begin by describing the results of our case studies-which include Iraq, Libya, Afghanistan, and others-and the lessons they teach about the Intelligence Community's current capabilities and weaknesses. The NIOs are granted authority under the new legislation for "evaluating community-wide collection and production of intelligence by the Intelligence Community and the requirements and resources of such collection and production." 10 We believe this role is complementary with that of the Mission Managers. NIC, Outstanding WMD and Missile Issues (Sept.
Use the following plan: make an introduction; express your personal opinion and give reasons for it; give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you dont agree with it; draw a conclusion. 60 Interview with senior CTC official (Oct. 142 DOE Office of Intelligence, Technical Intelligence Note, Iraq: Seeking Additional Aluminum Tubes (TIN 000084) (Dec. 54 For example, the nctc spends roughly 70 percent of its time on immediate threats, 55 primarily because analysts have to run each potential threat to ground, even if it seems suspect from the outset. 14, 2002) (noting the debate over the tubes' intended use but also the fact that "Iraq's denial and deception programs and the lack of human intelligence have resulted in intelligence gaps Senior Publish When Ready, Evidence of Iraq's Nuclear. 31 See,.g., Interview with senior In-Q-Tel official (Feb. As noted, after OIF, analysts learned that the wall was actually a solid, six foot high structure. 30 Because of ngic's expertise on conventional weapons systems such as rockets, ngic's view that the tubes were poor choices for rocket bodies gave CIA analysts greater confidence in their own judgment that the tubes were likely for use in centrifuges.
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Comments from DOE (March 3, 2005). By the mid-1990s, United Nations sanctions were taking a serious toll; removing them therefore became Saddam's first priority, according to the ISG. Immigration and Customs Enforcement official (Feb. A different kind OF "center developing THE national counter proliferation center Recommendation 6 We recommend that the President establish a National Counter Proliferation Center (ncpc) that is relatively small (.e., fewer than 100 people) and that manages and coordinates analysis. 849 CIA, Inspector General, Inspection Report of the DCI Center for Weapons Intelligence, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control (winpac) Directorate of Intelligence (IG IN) (Nov. 334 Interview with Division Chief and Group Chief, CIA/DO (Dec. Coleman Intelligence Professional Joan. Success on this front will require greater willingness to accept financial costs, political risks, and even human casualties. Although information is limited, Saddam probably has stocked at least 100-and possibly as much as 500-metric tons of CW agents. 20 Interview with FBI counterintelligence official (Feb. We found an Intelligence Community that has had some significant successes, but that is, on balance, how to teach essay writing pdf badly equipped and badly organized to confront today's threats. 7 The Community was less successful in judging how well Libya was able to exploit what it possessed.
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Follow the basic essay format. 95 He also said that using 81 millimeter rockets as a "cover story" for a centrifuge project would not have been very useful, because Iraq how to teach essay writing pdf had difficulty importing any goods. After the war, CIA attempted to verify the location of facilities in Iraq that the source had described and was unable to do so; further investigation led CIA to conclude that the source was "directed" by the Iraqi National Congress. 611 In a paper sent to the National Security Council in January 2003, the CIA noted that an Iraqi Ministry of Defense official had indicated that Iraq considered its UAVs to be an important strategic weapon. Mcphs University Physician Assistant Program (Boston). 254 Interview with CIA/DO officials and CIA Iraq WMD Review Group analysts (Aug. 7 Our rivals use a range of sophisticated human and technical intelligence techniques, including surveillance, spies, attempts to influence the.S. One, there is not yet an institutionalized, effective method to exploit open source resources that would have allowed a better understanding of developments in Iraq. 3 (imagery was "critical" to assessments that Iraq had restarted CW production) and.
In truth, any assessment of the effect of Saddam's political situation on his decisions about WMD in the years from 1991 to 2003 would more likely than not have resulted-and, in point of fact, did result-in the conclusion that Saddam retained his WMD programs. In the information sharing arena, for example, consolidation of terrorist "watchlists" and expanded use of those lists for screening purposes have increased the likelihood of detecting known or suspected terrorists and obtaining additional information about them. 12, 2003) available at doj. Our Iraq case study found a near complete failure across all of the Intelligence Community's collection disciplines-from those who collect human intelligence, to the technical collection agencies that take satellite photographs and intercept communications-to gather valuable information on Saddam Hussein's weapons capabilities. Tenet asked whether the division chief had a contact number for another foreign intelligence service (not the service handling Curveball). Senators Bob Graham and Carl Levin also requested an NIE covering various topics related to Iraq's WMD programs. Locating and tracking dispersed terrorists and guerrilla fighters hiding in an urban environment-rather than massed armored forces on a European battlefield-typifies the type of collection problems the Intelligence Community faces today. National security policies, programs, and objectives. 16, 2004 Interview with representatives of the Office of Intelligence Policy Review, Department of Justice (Oct.